Most of us have tried to worm our way out of a phone contract in pursuit of the latest iPhone – only to find ourselves paying off an expensive 24-month fixed contract.
Contracts for services (such as those related to building a house or providing internet access) often include provisions for early termination fees (ETFs). These usually require the customer to pay out the remainder of the contract, or even a fixed amount, should they terminate the contract prematurely. But are ETFs legal or are they a voidable penalty?
ETFs are invoked when a party brings a contract to an end prior to the contracted end date. They are commonly either:
Under contract law, an ETF will not be valid if it can be characterised as a ‘penalty’.
To be valid, an ETF must be a ‘genuine pre-estimate of the loss the service provider suffered’ because of the early termination. A genuine pre-estimate may be calculated by taking into account a number of variables, such as:
If a clause requires a party who breaches the contract (by terminating early) to pay a sum which is ‘extravagant and unconscionable’ compared to the greatest conceivable loss, this will be a penalty.
One must also be conscious of the Australian Consumer Law and its wider implications with respect to ETFs.
Under the Australian Consumer Law, an ETF may be considered an ‘unfair term’ and thus void if it does not bear a reasonable relationship to the likely loss suffered by the service provider because of early termination.
In Andrews v ANZ the High Court determined that a clause will be construed as a penalty if:
In Pacciocco v ANZ, the High Court determined that charging late repayment fees to credit card holders were not penalties, as they were designed to protect ANZ from financial losses flowing from late payments.
If your ETF is a ‘penalty’, it will be enforced only to the extent that it provides genuine compensation to the aggrieved party. Including an ETF which varies depending on how early the contract is terminated may allow suppliers to justify that the ETF is a ‘genuine pre-estimate of loss’ and therefore enforceable.
Any business wanting to recoup their losses from early termination must be wary that their ETFs may be punitive. Consequently, if you have any doubt chat to one of our early birds to avoid the penal worm.
Posted on: 1 November 2017